Throughput fell for 30 franchised brands and increased to 11, not counting Polestar which was new to the list.

Mitch Phillips, global director of data at Urban Science, a consulting firm that also tracks dealership counts, attributed the industry’s decline in throughput not only to inventory shortages, but also to the economy and consumer perception of the economic conditions to come.

Toyota, which has long held the top spot for throughput, again was No. 1 with 1,494 vehicles sold per franchise, though also down 8.8 percent from a year ago, as its inventory was constrained.

Lexus again finished No. 2, with a throughput of 1,060 vehicles, a 15 percent slide. Its dealers had record low inventory throughout most of 2022.

BMW’s throughput declined 1.6 percent to 947 vehicles but climbed one spot to third. Honda tumbled five spots to No. 8, with a throughput of 826 vehicles, down 33 percent. Throughput at Acura fell 35 percent to 378 vehicles.

Honda and Acura spokesman Chris Naughton called the two brands “restrained only by limited inventory, due to industrywide supply chain challenges.” But Naughton said American Honda Motor started 2023 with more than double the inventory it had a year earlier.

Mercedes-Benz, the only brand in the top 10 to see throughput rise, jumped four spots to No. 4. Its throughput rose 6.4 percent to 916 vehicles. Kia rounded out the Top 5, rising from No. 6 despite a 2.2 percent decline in throughput to 892 vehicles. It swapped places with Subaru, which fell to No. 6. The rest of the Top 10 retained their positions: Hyundai at 7, Nissan at 9 and Audi at 10.